Scientific Revolution : Ten Men and Women Who Reinvented American Medicine
by Hruban, Ralph H., M.D.; Linder, Will







Forewordxiii
Howard Markel
Prefacexvii
Introduction: A Revolution in American Medicinexix
1 Mary Elizabeth Garrett: Equity and Excellence
1(19)
2 John Shaw Billings: Building Medicine for a New Century
20(21)
3 William Henry Welch: Medicine through the Lens of Science
41(21)
4 William Osler: Philosophy of Being a Physician and Patient-Centered Teaching
62(28)
5 William Stewart Halsted: Victory Wrought from Defeat
90(28)
6 Jesse William Lazear: The Ultimate Sacrifice
118(34)
7 Max Brodel: Art Applied to Medicine
152(29)
8 Dorothy Reed Mendenhall: Hardship and Discrimination
181(28)
9 Helen Taussig: The Founder of Pediatric Cardiology
209(28)
10 Vivien Thomas: Something the Lord Made
237(32)
Epilogue269(4)
Acknowledgments273(2)
Figure Credits275(2)
Bibliography277(6)
Notes283(18)
Index301


A prismatic examination of the evolution of medicine, from a trade to a science, through the exemplary lives of ten men and women.

Johns Hopkins University, one of the preeminent medical schools in the nation today, has played a unique role in the history of medicine. When it first opened its doors in 1893, medicine was a rough-and-ready trade.  It would soon evolve into a rigorous science. It was nothing short of a revolution. 

This transition might seem inevitable from our vantage point today. In recent years, medical science has mapped the human genome, deployed robotic tools to perform delicate surgeries, and developed effective vaccines against a host of deadly pathogens. But this transformation could not have happened without the game-changing vision, talent, and dedication of a small cadre of individuals who were willing to commit body and soul to the advancement of medical science, education, and treatment. 

A Scientific Revolution recounts the stories of John Shaw Billings, Max Brödel, Mary Elizabeth Garrett, William Halsted, Jesse Lazear, Dorothy Reed Mendenhall, William Osler, Helen Taussig, Vivien Thomas, and William Welch.  This chorus of lives tells a compelling tale not just of their individual struggles, but how personal and societal issues went hand-in-hand with the advancement of medicine.





Dr. Ralph H. Hruban is a Professor of Pathology and Oncology and the Baxley Professor and Director of the Department of Pathology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of Chicago and is a 1985 Johns Hopkins School of Medicine alumnus. Dr. Hruban is the Director of The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center at Johns Hopkins.

Dr. Hruban has received numerous awards including the Frank H. Netter Award for Special Contributions to Medical Education and the 2013 Johns Hopkins University Distinguished Alumni Award. In 2013 he was elected a member of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. Dr. Hruban has also received five teaching awards from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

Dr. Hruban has written more than 800 scientific papers and eight books. He produced an award-winning documentary on the life of the surgeon William Stewart Halsted

Will Linder is a Chicago-based writer and editor. He is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of the Johns Hopkins University Krieger School of Arts and Sciences, where he majored in history. In addition, he holds master's degrees in business administration and liberal arts from the University of Chicago. Will has had a long career in business, academic, and journalistic writing. He serves on the Johns Hopkins University Alumni Council and the Krieger School's Humanities Advisory Council. Will is also a huge Blue Jays lacrosse fan.





Pathologist Hruban and writer Linder profile 10 visionaries, educators, clinicians, and researchers associated in some manner with the prestigious Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Hospital who have played a role in the advancement of science-based medicine in America. Readers learn about a philanthropist advocating for equal admission of women to medical school, the librarian-surgeon who designed the hospital buildings, the first dean of the medical school, a young doctor's sacrifice to prove how yellow fever is transmitted, a gifted surgical technician and researcher, a medical illustrator, a cancer investigator, and an almost deaf pediatric cardiologist who used her fingertip's touch on patients' chests to listen to their heart sounds. The bold and innovative surgeon William Stewart Halsted was addicted to cocaine and later to morphine. Sexism and racism did stain the Hopkins medical school. An esteemed physician and medical humanist, William Osler is revealed here to have made racist statements. Hruban and Linder's portraits form striking and accountable medical history that spotlights both discrimination and groundbreaking contributions, including those valiantly made by individuals who overcame prejudice and other obstacles. Copyright 2022 Booklist Reviews.





A collection of 10 biographical vignettes of men and women connected to Baltimore's Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School, who all contributed to the progress of medicine. According to pathologist Hruban and author Linder, a revolution in medicine occurred in the late-19th and early-20th centuries that transformed the industry forever, and Johns Hopkins Hospital played a pivotal role in it. As University of Michigan School of Medicine professor Dr. Howard Markel states in a foreword: Johns Hopkins "played an instrumental role in pulling American medicine out of the muck and mire of nineteenth-century humoralism, bloodletting, and industrial-strength toxins posing as therapeutics." The authors convey the significance of the institution by documenting, with great clarity and historical rigor, the groundbreaking efforts of 10 men and women all associated with it. The book begins with Mary Elizabeth Garrett, a wealthy philanthropist who pledged a considerable donation to Johns Hopkins University for the express creation of a medical school, but only on the condition that it admitted women into its inaugural class in 1893. John Shaw Billings, who served as a military surgeon for the Union during the Civil War, not only helped design Johns Hopkins Hospital, but also recruited its first class of leaders. Dr. Jesse W. Lazear was instrumental in deterring the causes of yellow fever, especially in Cuba, and died from a self-administered bite from an infected mosquito-a martyr for scientific experimentation. Hruban and Linder cast a wide net in their selection of pioneers; Max Brodel, for instance, wasn't a physician at all, but blazed trails in the art of medical illustration, setting it on a "solid and sustainable course." The assemblage of synoptic biographies not only highlights the great importance of Johns Hopkins to the advancement of medical science, but also the remarkable distance that science traversed in less than a century. The authors adopt a writing style that's not only accessible-an impressive feat, since some of the subject matter is technically prohibitive-but also captivating. Readers will be drawn into an edifying chronicle of scientific accomplishment, and also into the drama of the people who made it possible. Notably, they consider figures who were marginalized by society; for example, they tell the story of Vivien Thomas, a Black man from the South who was a brilliant laboratory technician and researcher who made essential contributions to cardiac surgery but struggled for recognition in a racist society. The authors don't mince words regarding prejudice and bias in the rarefied cosmos of Johns Hopkins, and in the larger history of medical science. Indeed, they tackle the issue head-on, admitting that their story "has inextricably woven into its fabric the ugly realities of racism, sexism, and a host of other harsh truths. While some of these harsh truths may be understood in the context of their place and their time, this understanding does not absolve past wrongs." Overall, the authors have produced a historical record that's riveting as well as edifying, and unflinchingly honest, as well. A readable and informative medical-science chronicle. Copyright Kirkus 2022 Kirkus/BPI Communications. All rights reserved.





A collection of 10 biographical vignettes of men and women connected to Baltimore's Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School who all contributed to the progress of medicine. According to pathologist Hruban and author Linder, a revolution in medicine occurred in the late-19th and early-20th centuries that transformed the industry forever, and Johns Hopkins Hospital played a pivotal role in it. As University of Michigan School of Medicine professor Dr. Howard Markel states in a foreword: Johns Hopkins "played an instrumental role in pulling American medicine out of the muck and mire of nineteenth-century humoralism, bloodletting, and industrial-strength toxins posing as therapeutics." The authors convey the significance of the institution by documenting, with great clarity and historical rigor, the groundbreaking efforts of 10 men and women all associated with it. The book begins with Mary Elizabeth Garrett, a wealthy philanthropist who pledged a considerable donation to Johns Hopkins University for the express creation of a medical school but only on the condition that it admitted women into its inaugural class in 1893. John Shaw Billings, who served as a military surgeon for the Union during the Civil War, not only helped design Johns Hopkins Hospital, but also recruited its first class of leaders. Dr. Jesse W. Lazear was instrumental in determining the causes of yellow fever, especially in Cuba, and died from a self-administered bite from an infected mosquito-a martyr for scientific experimentation. Hruban and Linder cast a wide net in their selection of pioneers; Max Brodel, for instance, wasn't a physician at all but blazed trails in the art of medical illustration, setting it on a "solid and sustainable course." The assemblage of synoptic biographies highlights not only the great importance of Johns Hopkins to the advancement of medical science, but also the remarkable distance that science traversed in less than a century. The authors adopt a writing style that's not only accessible-an impressive feat, since some of the subject matter is technically prohibitive-but also captivating. Readers will be drawn into an edifying chronicle of scientific accomplishment and also into the drama of the people who made it possible. Notably, they consider figures who were marginalized by society; for example, they tell the story of Vivien Thomas, a Black man from the South who was a brilliant laboratory technician and researcher who made essential contributions to cardiac surgery but struggled for recognition in a racist society. The authors don't mince words regarding prejudice and bias in the rarefied cosmos of Johns Hopkins and in the larger history of medical science. Indeed, they tackle the issue head-on, admitting that their story "has inextricably woven into its fabric the ugly realities of racism, sexism, and a host of other harsh truths. While some of these harsh truths may be understood in the context of their place and their time, this understanding does not absolve past wrongs." Overall, the authors have produced a historical record that's riveting as well as edifying and unflinchingly honest, as well. A readable and informative medical-science chronicle. Copyright Kirkus 2022 Kirkus/BPI Communications. All rights reserved.






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